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Article
Early Monitoring of Health Status of Plantation-Grown Eucalyptus pellita at Large Spatial Scale via Visible Spectrum Imaging of Canopy Foliage Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Forests 2021, 12(10), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12101393 (registering DOI) - 13 Oct 2021
Abstract
Eucalyptus is a diverse genus from which several species are often deployed for commercial industrial tree plantation due to their desirable wood properties for utilization in both solid wood and fiber products, as well as their growth and productivity in many environments. In OXO Good Grips Fat Separator-500ml, 500 ml
Eucalyptus is a diverse genus from which several species are often deployed for commercial industrial tree plantation due to their desirable wood properties for utilization in both solid wood and fiber products, as well as their growth and productivity in many environments. In this study, a method for monitoring the health status of a 22.78 ha Eucalyptus pellita plantation stand was developed using the red-green-blue channels captured using an unmanned aerial vehicle. The ortho-image was generated, and visual atmospheric resistance index (VARI) indices were developed. Herein, four classification levels of pest and disease were generated using the VARI-green algorithm. The range of normalized VARI-green indices was between −2.0 and 2.0. The results identified seven dead trees (VARI-green index −2 to 0), five trees that were severely infected (VARI-green index 0 to 0.05), 967 trees that were mildly infected (VARI-green index 0.06 to 0.16), and 10,090 trees that were considered healthy (VARI-green index 0.17 to 2.00). The VARI-green indices were verified by manual ground-truthing and by comparison with normalized difference vegetation index which showed a mean correlation of 0.73. This study has shown practical application of aerial survey of a large-scale operational area of industrial tree plantation via low-cost UAV and RGB camera, to analyze VARI-green images in the detection of pest and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Applications in Forests Inventory and Management)
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Article
The Usefulness of a Massive Open Online Course about Postural and Technological Adaptations to Enhance Academic Performance and Empathy in Health Sciences Undergraduates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010672 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide accessible and engaging information for Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy students. The objective of this research was to determine the usefulness in improving academic performance and empathy in health sciences undergraduates, and to test a hypothetical model The Body Shop Maca Root and Aloe Softening Shaving Cream 200ml
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) provide accessible and engaging information for Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy students. The objective of this research was to determine the usefulness in improving academic performance and empathy in health sciences undergraduates, and to test a hypothetical model through structural equation analysis. This research was carried out using a descriptive and quasi-experimental design. It was conducted in a sample of 381 participants: 176 used a MOOC and 205 did not. The results of the Student’s t-test showed statistically significant differences in academic performance between the groups in favor of those students who had realized the MOOC. Participants carried out an evaluation rubric after taking MOOC. Statistically significant differences in empathy were also obtained between the pre (X = 62.06; SD = 4.41) and post (X = 73.77; SD = 9.93) tests. The hypothetical model tested via structural equation modeling was supported by the results. Motivation for the MOOC explained 50% of the variance. The MOOC (participation and realization) explained 58% of academic performance, 35% of cognitive empathy and 48% of affective empathy. The results suggest an association between higher realization and participation in a MOOC and higher levels of academic performance, and cognitive and affective empathy. Full article
Article
Modulation of Telomere Length by Mediterranean Diet, Caloric Restriction, and Exercise: Results from PREDIMED-Plus Study
Antioxidants 2021, 10(10), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101596 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Telomere length (TL) has been associated with aging and is determined by lifestyle. However, the mechanisms by which a dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) affects TL homeostasis are still unknown. Our aim was to analyse the effect of an energy-restricted Dixie Digest #1 1/1937-1st issue-Florida's Dog tracks-Jeb Stuart
Telomere length (TL) has been associated with aging and is determined by lifestyle. However, the mechanisms by which a dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) affects TL homeostasis are still unknown. Our aim was to analyse the effect of an energy-restricted MedDiet with physical activity promotion (intervention group) versus an unrestricted-caloric MedDiet with no weight-loss advice (control group) on TL and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) plasma levels. In total, 80 non-diabetic participants with metabolic syndrome were randomly selected from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea)-Plus-Reus study. TL was measured by a hybridisation method and 8-OHdG levels by ELISA at baseline and after one year of intervention. Linear mixed models (LMM)—raw and after adjusting for potential confounders—were used to examine the associations between TL or 8-OHdG plasma levels by intervention group and/or time. A total of 69 subjects with available DNA samples were included in the analyses. A significant β-coefficient was found for time towards increasing values through the year of follow-up for TL (unadjusted β of 0.740 (95% CI: 0.529 to 0.951), and multivariable model β of 0.700 (95% CI: 0.477 to 0.922)). No significant βs were found, neither for the intervention group nor for the interaction between the intervention group and time. Regarding 8-OHdG plasma levels, no significant βs were found for the intervention group, time, and its interaction. Our results suggest that MedDiet could have an important role in preventing telomere shortening, but calorie restriction and exercise promotion did not provide an additional advantage concerning telomere length after one year of MedDiet intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
Article
Pregnancy, Birth, Infant, and Early Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes among a Cohort of Women with Symptoms of Zika Virus Disease during Pregnancy in Three Surveillance Sites, Project Vigilancia de Embarazadas con Zika (VEZ), Colombia, 2016–2018
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(4), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6040183 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Project Vigilancia de Embarazadas con Zika (VEZ), an intensified surveillance of pregnant women with symptoms of the Zika virus disease (ZVD) in Colombia, aimed to evaluate the relationship between symptoms of ZVD during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes and early 6mm petrol pressure washer pull cord recoil starter 100% nylon 2
Project Vigilancia de Embarazadas con Zika (VEZ), an intensified surveillance of pregnant women with symptoms of the Zika virus disease (ZVD) in Colombia, aimed to evaluate the relationship between symptoms of ZVD during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. During May–November 2016, pregnant women in three Colombian cities who were reported with symptoms of ZVD to the national surveillance system, or with symptoms of ZVD visiting participating clinics, were enrolled in Project VEZ. Data from maternal and pediatric (up to two years of age) medical records were abstracted. Available maternal specimens were tested for the presence of the Zika virus ribonucleic acid and/or anti-Zika virus immunoglobulin antibodies. Of 1213 enrolled pregnant women with symptoms of ZVD, 1180 had a known pregnancy outcome. Results of the Zika virus laboratory testing were available for 569 (48.2%) pregnancies with a known pregnancy outcome though testing timing varied and was often distal to the timing of symptoms; 254 (21.5% of the whole cohort; 44.6% of those with testing results) were confirmed or presumptive positive for the Zika virus infection. Of pregnancies with a known outcome, 50 (4.2%) fetuses/infants had Zika-associated brain or eye defects, which included microcephaly at birth. Early childhood adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes were more common among those with Zika-associated birth defects than among those without and more common among those with laboratory evidence of a Zika virus infection compared with the full cohort. The proportion of fetuses/infants with any Zika-associated brain or eye defect was consistent with the proportion seen in other studies. Enhancements to Colombia’s existing national surveillance enabled the assessment of adverse outcomes associated with ZVD in pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zika in Infants and Children)
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Article
Modeling Nanoscale III–V Channel MOSFETs with the Self-Consistent Multi-Valley/Multi-Subband Monte Carlo Approach
Electronics 2021, 10(20), 2472; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10202472 - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
We describe the multi-valley/multi-subband Monte Carlo (MV–MSMC) approach to model nanoscale MOSFETs featuring III–V semiconductors as channel material. This approach describes carrier quantization normal to the channel direction, solving the Schrödinger equation while off-equilibrium transport is captured by the multi-valley/multi-subband Boltzmann transport equation. GOONSDS Sword Bag Silk Katana Sword Carrying Bag Case for Japane
We describe the multi-valley/multi-subband Monte Carlo (MV–MSMC) approach to model nanoscale MOSFETs featuring III–V semiconductors as channel material. This approach describes carrier quantization normal to the channel direction, solving the Schrödinger equation while off-equilibrium transport is captured by the multi-valley/multi-subband Boltzmann transport equation. In this paper, we outline a methodology to include quantum effects along the transport direction (namely, source-to-drain tunneling) and provide model verification by comparison with Non-Equilibrium Green’s Function results for nanoscale MOSFETs with InAs and InGaAs channels. It is then shown how to use the MV–MSMC to calibrate a Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation deck based on the drift–diffusion model that allows much faster simulations and opens the doors to variability studies in III–V channel MOSFETs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue III-V Semiconductor Processes and Devices)
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Article
Could a Conversational AI Identify Offensive Language?
Information 2021, 12(10), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/info12100418 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
In recent years, we have seen a wide use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in the Internet and everywhere. Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning are important sub-fields of AI that have made Chatbots and Conversational AI applications possible. Those algorithms are built GERMANUS Tobacco Pouch from Artleather, Leather Free - Made in E
In recent years, we have seen a wide use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in the Internet and everywhere. Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning are important sub-fields of AI that have made Chatbots and Conversational AI applications possible. Those algorithms are built based on historical data in order to create language models, however historical data could be intrinsically discriminatory. This article investigates whether a Conversational AI could identify offensive language and it will show how large language models often produce quite a bit of unethical behavior because of bias in the historical data. Our low-level proof-of-concept will present the challenges to detect offensive language in social media and it will discuss some steps to propitiate strong results in the detection of offensive language and unethical behavior using a Conversational AI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG 2020 & 2021))
Article
A Double Histochemical/Immunohistochemical Staining for the Identification of Canine Mast Cells in Light Microscopy
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(10), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100229 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a widely used technique in diagnostic pathology, but the simultaneous analysis of more than one antibody at a time with different chromogens is rather complex, time-consuming, and quite expensive. In order to facilitate the identification of mast cells (MCs) during NP Spring Autumn Men's Sweaters Guys Boys Hip-hop Stitching Swea
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a widely used technique in diagnostic pathology, but the simultaneous analysis of more than one antibody at a time with different chromogens is rather complex, time-consuming, and quite expensive. In order to facilitate the identification of mast cells (MCs) during immunohistochemical analysis of membrane and/or nuclear markers, we propose a new staining method that includes the association of IHC and toluidine blue as a counterstain. To achieve this goal, we tested c-kit, Ki67, and cannabinoid receptor 2 on several cases of cutaneous canine mast cell tumors (MCTs), cutaneous mastocytosis, and atopic dermatitis. The results obtained show how this double staining technique, although limited to non-cytoplasmic markers and of little use in poorly differentiated MCTs in which MC metachromasia is hard to see, can be used during the evaluation of nuclear and/or membranous immunohistochemical markers in all canine cutaneous disorders, especially if characterized by the presence of a low number of MCs. It can help to evaluate those MCTs in which neoplastic MCs must be clearly distinguished from inflammatory cells that can infiltrate the tumor itself, in facilitating the calculation of the Ki67 index. Moreover, it can be used to study the expression of new markers in both animal and human tissues containing MCs and in MC disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumors in Pets: New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tools)
Article
Research of a Novel Ag Temperature Sensor Based on Fabric Substrate Fabricated by Magnetron Sputtering
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206014 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
TPU-coated polyester fabric was used as the substrate of a flexible temperature sensor and Ag nanoparticles were deposited on its surface as the temperature sensing layer by the magnetron sputtering method. The effects of sputtering powers and heat treatment on properties of the Incredible Hulk - Badges Marvel Incredible Hulk (in 2,5 cm)
TPU-coated polyester fabric was used as the substrate of a flexible temperature sensor and Ag nanoparticles were deposited on its surface as the temperature sensing layer by the magnetron sputtering method. The effects of sputtering powers and heat treatment on properties of the sensing layers, such as the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), linearity, hysteresis, drift, reliability, and bending resistance, were mainly studied. The results showed that the TCR (0.00234 °C−1) was the highest when sputtering power was 90 W and sputtering pressure was 0.8 Pa. The crystallinity of Ag particles would improve, as the TCR was improved to 0.00262 °C−1 under heat treatment condition at 160°. The Ag layer obtained excellent linearity, lower hysteresis and drift value, as well as good reliability and bending resistance when the sputtering power was 90 W. The flexible temperature sensor based on the coated polyester fabric improved the softness and comfortableness of sensor, which can be further applied in intelligent wearable products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Inorganic Thin Film Materials)
Article
Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Dose Optimization of Vancomycin in Chinese Patients with Augmented Renal Clearance
Antibiotics 2021, 10(10), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10101238 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Patients with augmented renal clearance (ARC) have been described as having low vancomycin concentration. However, the pharmacokinetic model that best describes vancomycin in patients with ARC has not been clarified. The purpose of this study is to determine the pharmacokinetic of vancomycin in ORSKEY Dash Cam 1080P Full HD Car Camera DVR Dashboard Camera Vi
Patients with augmented renal clearance (ARC) have been described as having low vancomycin concentration. However, the pharmacokinetic model that best describes vancomycin in patients with ARC has not been clarified. The purpose of this study is to determine the pharmacokinetic of vancomycin in Chinese adults and the recommend dosage for patients with different renal function, including patients with ARC. We retrospectively collected 424 vancomycin serum concentrations from 209 Chinese patients and performed a population pharmacokinetic model using NONMEM 7.4.4. The final model indicated that the clearance rate of vancomycin increased together with the creatinine clearance, and exhibited a nearly saturated curve at higher creatinine clearance. The estimated clearance of vancomycin was between 3.46 and 5.58 L/h in patients with ARC, with 5.58 being the maximum theoretical value. The central volume of distribution increased by more than three times in patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to explore the probability of reaching the target therapeutic range (24-h area under the curve: 400–650 mg·h/L, trough concentration: 10–20 mg/L) when various dose regimens were administered. The simulations indicated that dose should increase together with the creatinine clearance until 180 mL/min. These findings may contribute to improving the efficacy and safety of vancomycin in patients with ARC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appropriateness of Antibiotics in China)
Review
Virus Diseases of Cereal and Oilseed Crops in Australia: Current Position and Future Challenges
Viruses 2021, 13(10), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13102051 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
This review summarizes research on virus diseases of cereals and oilseeds in Australia since the 1950s. All viruses known to infect the diverse range of cereal and oilseed crops grown in the continent’s temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical cropping regions are included. Viruses BIRTHSTONE 14K Yellow or Rose Gold or White Rhodium Plated .925
This review summarizes research on virus diseases of cereals and oilseeds in Australia since the 1950s. All viruses known to infect the diverse range of cereal and oilseed crops grown in the continent’s temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical cropping regions are included. Viruses that occur commonly and have potential to cause the greatest seed yield and quality losses are described in detail, focusing on their biology, epidemiology and management. These are: barley yellow dwarf virus, cereal yellow dwarf virus and wheat streak mosaic virus in wheat, barley, oats, triticale and rye; Johnsongrass mosaic virus in sorghum, maize, sweet corn and pearl millet; turnip yellows virus and turnip mosaic virus in canola and Indian mustard; tobacco streak virus in sunflower; and cotton bunchy top virus in cotton. The currently less important viruses covered number nine infecting nine cereal crops and 14 infecting eight oilseed crops (none recorded for rice or linseed). Brief background information on the scope of the Australian cereal and oilseed industries, virus epidemiology and management and yield loss quantification is provided. Major future threats to managing virus diseases effectively include damaging viruses and virus vector species spreading from elsewhere, the increasing spectrum of insecticide resistance in insect and mite vectors, resistance-breaking virus strains, changes in epidemiology, virus and vectors impacts arising from climate instability and extreme weather events, and insufficient industry awareness of virus diseases. The pressing need for more resources to focus on addressing these threats is emphasized and recommendations over future research priorities provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics in Plant Viral Research)
Article
Cognitive Factors Influencing COVID-19 Vaccination Intentions: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory Using a Probability Community Sample
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101170 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
COVID-19 vaccines, as one of the effective ways of dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic, can lower COVID-19 risk and protect against severe disease and death; however, substantial individual differences in vaccination intentions have hindered the realization of a high vaccination rate among the 'Kis Plastic Cupboard Excellence Utility, Set of 1, Sand, 971000
COVID-19 vaccines, as one of the effective ways of dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic, can lower COVID-19 risk and protect against severe disease and death; however, substantial individual differences in vaccination intentions have hindered the realization of a high vaccination rate among the public. To look for efficient strategies to promote vaccination, this study tested whether the protection motivation theory (PMT), a cognitive model based upon threat and coping appraisals, would account for the differences in vaccination intentions under three scenarios (i.e., vaccines in general and with high- or low- efficacy of lowering the risk of developing COVID-19). A phone survey was conducted in early 2021 and obtained a probability community sample (n = 472; 49.2% men) in Macao, China. We found that 54.0% of respondents indicated their relatively strong intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination for high-efficacy vaccines, compared to 29.5% for low-efficacy vaccines and 31.0% for vaccines in general. After controlling for demographics, self-efficacy (i.e., the perceived capability of receiving COVID-19 vaccines) and maladaptive response reward (i.e., the perceived benefits of not receiving COVID-19 vaccines) were consistently associated with COVID-19 vaccination intentions under all three scenarios. The perceived severity of COVID-19 infection and response cost of COVID-19 vaccination were significantly associated with vaccination intention for high-efficacy vaccines, while the response efficacy of lowering the COVID-19 impact with COVID-19 vaccination was positively associated with vaccination intention for general and low-efficacy vaccines. Given that the relative strength of PMT constructs depends on perceived vaccine efficacy, we recommend taking PMT constructs and vaccine efficacy into account for encouraging vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination: Considerations for Public Health and Policy)
Article
Comparison of the Automatic and Manual Broiler Pre-Slaughter Chain Based on Trailer Microclimate during Transportation and Its Effect on M. Pectoralis Major
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102946 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
This study aims to compare two broiler pre-slaughter chain methods: (i) the automatic pre-slaughter chain (APC) and (ii) manual pre-slaughter chain (MPC). The comparison is based on the evaluation of the trailer microclimate, number of injuries, and breast muscle (m. pectoralis major Hard Travel Case for Video Camera Camcorder Kenuo/CenZo/LESHP/Yi
This study aims to compare two broiler pre-slaughter chain methods: (i) the automatic pre-slaughter chain (APC) and (ii) manual pre-slaughter chain (MPC). The comparison is based on the evaluation of the trailer microclimate, number of injuries, and breast muscle (m. pectoralis major) quality. Transportation lasts 3.5 h, unloading 1 h. The selection of two hundred 39-day-old broilers (Ross 308 and Cobb 500 breeds) is random for each type of method. After slaughter, the pH value, electrical conductivity (EC), and color (lightness) of breast muscle tissues are determined at different post-mortem intervals. The MPC negatively affects the microclimate (p < 0.001), meat qualitative characteristics (p < 0.001), and places a greater strain on the body of chickens compared with APC. The average pH15min value of MPC broiler breast muscle tissue, generally used as the main meat quality parameter, is 5.97 ± 0.12, in contrast to 6.36 ± 0.16 for APC. Higher pH15min value of APC indicates better welfare and pre-slaughter handling. Values of EC and L* of breast tissues also confirms a difference between the methods of broiler handling (p < 0.001). No difference is found between the breed lines (p > 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Production: Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
Review
Potential Implications of Mammalian Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 in the Pathophysiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010708 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of ion channels is involved in the molecular mechanisms that mediate neuroimmune interactions and activities. Recent advancements in neuroimmunology have identified a role for TRP cation channels in several neuroimmune disorders including amyotropic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Coupling
The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of ion channels is involved in the molecular mechanisms that mediate neuroimmune interactions and activities. Recent advancements in neuroimmunology have identified a role for TRP cation channels in several neuroimmune disorders including amyotropic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). ME/CFS is a debilitating disorder with an obscure aetiology, hence considerable examination of its pathobiology is warranted. Dysregulation of TRP melastatin (TRPM) subfamily members and calcium signalling processes are implicated in the neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, and metabolic impairments inherent in ME/CFS. In this review, we present TRPM7 as a potential candidate in the pathomechanism of ME/CFS, as TRPM7 is increasingly recognized as a key mediator of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms affecting neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, and metabolic processes. A focused examination of the biochemistry of TRPM7, the role of this protein in the aforementioned systems, and the potential of TRPM7 as a molecular mechanism in the pathophysiology of ME/CFS will be discussed in this review. TRPM7 is a compelling candidate to examine in the pathobiology of ME/CFS as TRPM7 fulfils several key roles in multiple organ systems, and there is a paucity of literature reporting on its role in ME/CFS. FLOATING JEWEL 20cm MIRRORED MANTLE CLOCK MIRROR FRAME BLING DIA
Article
Spatial–Temporal Distribution of Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios, Inferred from over 250 Individuals Recorded in the Three Oceans
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102947 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
The megamouth shark (Megachasma pelagios) is one of the rarest shark species in the three oceans, and its biological and fishery information is still very limited. A total of 261 landing/stranding records were examined, including 132 females, 87 males, and 42 GRECERELLE Women's Sleeveless Racerback Loose Plain Maxi Dresses
The megamouth shark (Megachasma pelagios) is one of the rarest shark species in the three oceans, and its biological and fishery information is still very limited. A total of 261 landing/stranding records were examined, including 132 females, 87 males, and 42 sex unknown individuals, to provide the most detailed information on global megamouth shark records, and the spatial–temporal distribution of M. pelagios was inferenced from these records. The vertical distribution of M. pelagios ranged 0–1203 m in depth, and immature individuals were mostly found in the waters shallower than 200 m. Mature individuals are not only able to dive deeper, but also move to higher latitude waters. The majority of M. pelagios are found in the western North Pacific Ocean (>5° N). The Indian and Atlantic Oceans are the potential nursery areas for this species, immature individuals are mainly found in Indonesia and Philippine waters. Large individuals tend to move towards higher latitude waters (>15° N) for foraging and growth from April to August. Sexual segregation of M. pelagios is found, females tend to move to higher latitude waters (>30° N) in the western North Pacific Ocean, but males may move across the North Pacific Ocean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sharks and Skates: Ecology, Distribution and Conservation)
Review
AUTOCLOVER Chrome Window Visor Weather Deflectors Sun Rain Guard
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(10), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100228 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Globally, the use of ethnoveterinary medicine as remedies for animal health among different ethnic groups justify the need for a systematic exploration to enhance their potential. In addition, the increasing popularity and utilisation of woody plants remain common in traditional medicine, which may Glass Coffin Display Box - 7.2" x 3.6" x 2.5" - Decorative Displ
Globally, the use of ethnoveterinary medicine as remedies for animal health among different ethnic groups justify the need for a systematic exploration to enhance their potential. In addition, the increasing popularity and utilisation of woody plants remain common in traditional medicine, which may be attributed to their inherent benefits. The current review was aimed at analysing ethnoveterinary surveys, biological activities, and secondary metabolites/phytochemical profiles of the woody plants of South Africa. Eligible literature (period: 2000 to 2020) were retrieved from different databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Sabinet, and Science Direct. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 20 ethnoveterinary surveys were eligible and were subjected to further analysis. We identified 104 woody plant species from 44 plant families that are used in the treatment of different diseases in animals, particularly cattle (70%) and goats (20%). The most mentioned (with six citations) woody plants were Terminalia sericea Burch. ex DC and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., which were followed by plants with five (Cussonia spicata Thunb., Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso) or four (Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) Codd, Cassia abbreviata Oliv., and Strychnos henningsii Gilg) individual mentions. The most dominant families were Fabaceae (19%), Apocynaceae (5.8%), Rubiaceae (5.8%), Anacardiaceae (4.8%), Combretaceae (4.8%), Euphorbiaceae (4.8%), Malvaceae (4.8%), Rhamnaceae (4.8%), and Celastraceae (3.8%). Bark (33%), leaves (29%), and roots (19%) were the plant parts dominantly used to prepare remedies for ethnoveterinary medicine. An estimated 20% of woody plants have been screened for antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity effects. Phytochemical profiles established a rich pool of valuable secondary metabolites (phenolic, flavonoids and condensed tannins) that may be responsible for the exerted biological activities. Overall, the significant portion of woody plants lacking empirical evidence on their biological effects indicates a major knowledge gap that requires more research efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture in Veterinary Medicine)
Article
A Modified Approach for the Ultrasound-Guided Quadratus Lumborum Block in Dogs: A Cadaveric Study
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102945 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block (QLB) is a locoregional technique described in canine cadavers. The aim of this study was to assess a modified approach to QLB to minimise potential complications such as abdominal organ puncture. Nine canine cadavers were included and were positioned Seklos LT | Sunflower - MICROGREENS Seeds | for Gardening | for
Ultrasound-guided quadratus lumborum block (QLB) is a locoregional technique described in canine cadavers. The aim of this study was to assess a modified approach to QLB to minimise potential complications such as abdominal organ puncture. Nine canine cadavers were included and were positioned in lateral recumbency. An ultrasound-guided QLB was performed on each side. The probe was placed in the transverse position over the lumbar muscles just caudal to the last rib, and a needle was advanced in-plane from a dorso-lateral to a ventro-medial. A volume of 0.2 mL kg−1 of a mixture of iomeprol and methylene blue was injected. Computed tomography (CT) and dissection were performed to evaluate the spreading. Success was defined as staining of the nerve with a length of more than 0.6 cm. Potential complications such as intra-abdominal, epidural, or intravascular spreading of the mixture were also assessed. The CT images showed a T13 to L7 vertebra distribution, with a median of 5 (3–6). Dissection showed staining of the nerves from T13 to L4, with a median of 3 (2–5). No complications were found. This modified approach to QLB is safe and shows similar results to the previous studies in canine carcass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Loco-Regional Anaesthesia in Veterinary Medicine)
Review
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets
Cancers 2021, 13(20), 5117; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13205117 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are unique, slow-growing malignancies whose molecular pathogenesis is incompletely understood. With rising incidence of pNETs over the last four decades, larger and more comprehensive ‘omic’ analyses of patient tumors have led to a clearer picture of the pNET genomic FORTUNO Outdoor Metal Raised Garden Bed Box 8.5x3x1FT, 101.6"x35
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are unique, slow-growing malignancies whose molecular pathogenesis is incompletely understood. With rising incidence of pNETs over the last four decades, larger and more comprehensive ‘omic’ analyses of patient tumors have led to a clearer picture of the pNET genomic landscape and transcriptional profiles for both primary and metastatic lesions. In pNET patients with advanced disease, those insights have guided the use of targeted therapies that inhibit activated mTOR and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways or stimulate somatostatin receptor signaling. Such treatments have significantly benefited patients, but intrinsic or acquired drug resistance in the tumors remains a major problem that leaves few to no effective treatment options for advanced cases. This demands a better understanding of essential molecular and biological events underlying pNET growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. This review examines the known molecular alterations associated with pNET pathogenesis, identifying which changes may be drivers of the disease and, as such, relevant therapeutic targets. We also highlight areas that warrant further investigation at the biological level and discuss available model systems for pNET research. The paucity of pNET models has hampered research efforts over the years, although recently developed cell line, animal, patient-derived xenograft, and patient-derived organoid models have significantly expanded the available platforms for pNET investigations. Advancements in pNET research and understanding are expected to guide improved patient treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aberrant Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Cancer)
Article
Structural Modeling and Failure Assessment of Spar-Type Substructure for 5 MW Floating Offshore Wind Turbine under Extreme Conditions in the East Sea
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6571; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206571 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Not only the driving for offshore wind energy capacity of 12 GW by Korea’s Renewable Energy 2030 plan but also the need for the rejuvenation of existing world-class shipbuilders’ infrastructures is drawing much attention to offshore wind energy in Korea, especially to the PowerTrust 3 Pack Silicone Skins Black/Security Camera Skin for
Not only the driving for offshore wind energy capacity of 12 GW by Korea’s Renewable Energy 2030 plan but also the need for the rejuvenation of existing world-class shipbuilders’ infrastructures is drawing much attention to offshore wind energy in Korea, especially to the diverse substructures. Considering the deep-sea environment in the East Sea, this paper presents detailed modeling and analysis of spar-type substructure for a 5 MW floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT). This process uses a fully coupled integrated load analysis, which was carried out using FAST, a widely used integrated load analysis software developed by NREL, coupled with an in-house hydrodynamic code (UOU code). The environmental design loads were calculated from data recorded over three years at the Ulsan Marine buoy point according to the ABS and DNVGL standards. The total 12 maximum cases from DLC 6.1 were selected to evaluate the structural integrity of the spar-type substructure under the three co-directional conditions (45°, 135°, and 315°) of wind and wave. A three-dimensional (3D) structural finite element (FE) model incorporating the wind turbine tower and floating structure bolted joint connection was constructed in FEGate (pre/post-structural analysis module based on MSC NASTRAN for ship and offshore structures). The FEM analysis applied the external loads such as the structural loads due to the inertial acceleration, buoyancy, and gravity, and the environmental loads due to the wind, wave, and current. The three-dimensional FE analysis results from the MSC Nastran software showed that the designed spar-type substructure had enough strength to endure the extreme limitation in the East Sea based on the von Mises criteria. The current process of this study would be applicable to the other substructures such as the submersible type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancement in Wind Turbine Technology)
Article
Evaluation of Surfactant Mixture for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Foamed Acid in Carbonate Matrix Acidizing
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6567; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206567 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
The effectiveness of matrix acidizing using CO2 foamed acid is dependent on the duration of foam stability. This paper presents a supercritical CO2 foamed acid with a surfactant mixture to improve the foam stability in carbonate matrix acidizing. The experimental apparatus PDP by DW Accessories Cymbal seat for cymbal stands 2 pieces 8mm
The effectiveness of matrix acidizing using CO2 foamed acid is dependent on the duration of foam stability. This paper presents a supercritical CO2 foamed acid with a surfactant mixture to improve the foam stability in carbonate matrix acidizing. The experimental apparatus was developed to conduct foam-stability and wormhole-propagation tests under high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) conditions. The foam decay times of five types of surfactants were measured under atmospheric conditions. Trimax (blend of cocamidopropyl betaine, disodium cocoamphodiacetate, and amine oxide) and Aromox C/12W (coco bis-(2-hydroxyethyl) amine oxide) had a high foam decay time. The surfactant mixture was prepared using these two surfactants. The foam stability tests of the surfactant mixture were performed according to the HCl concentration, surfactant mixing ratio, and injection rate of HCl under HPHT conditions. As a result, the foam stability could be improved by adding an HCl concentration of 20% to the surfactant mixture. Wormhole-propagation tests were performed using Indiana and Indonesian limestones. Because of the supercritical CO2 foamed acid injection, dominant wormholes were formed in all the core samples; thus, the absolute permeabilities significantly increased. The results of the scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and thin-section analyses revealed that the number of large pores with pore sizes of ≥0.5 mm increased by the injection of CO2 foamed acid. Therefore, the supercritical CO2 foamed acid with the surfactant mixture exhibited a high efficiency of matrix acidizing in carbonate reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies)
Article
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Energies 2021, 14(20), 6570; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206570 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
The steelmaking industry requires coke as a reducing agent, as an energy source, and for its ability to hold slag in a blast furnace. Coking coal as raw coke material is very limited. Studying the use of biomass as a mixture of coking New Balance Kids' Fresh Foam Arishi V3 Hook and Loop Running Sho
The steelmaking industry requires coke as a reducing agent, as an energy source, and for its ability to hold slag in a blast furnace. Coking coal as raw coke material is very limited. Studying the use of biomass as a mixture of coking coal in the synthesis of biocoke is necessary to reduce greenhouse gas coal emissions. This research focuses on biomass and heating temperature through the coal blending method to produce biocoke with optimal mechanical properties for the blast-furnace standard. The heating temperature of biomass to biochar was evaluated at 400, 500, and 600 °C. The blending of coking coal with biochar was in the compositions of 95:5, 85:15, and 75:25 wt.%. A compacting force of 20 MPa was employed to produce biocoke that was 50 mm in diameter and 27 mm thick using a hot cylinder dye. The green sample was heated at 1100 °C for 4 h, followed by quenching with a water medium, resulting in dense samples. Increasing heating temperature is generally directly proportional to an increase in fixed carbon and calorific value. Biocoke that meets several blast-furnace criteria is a coal mixture with coconut-shell charcoal of 85:15 wt.%. Carbonization at 500 °C, yielding fixed carbon, calorific value, and compressive strength, was achieved at 89.02 ± 0.11%; 29.681 ± 0.46 MJ/kg, and 6.53 ± 0.4 MPa, respectively. This product meets several criteria for blast-furnace applications, with CRI 29.8 and CSR 55.1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
Review
Which Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Should Be Selected as the First-Line Treatment for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia in Chronic Phase?
Cancers 2021, 13(20), 5116; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13205116 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
With the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) has been transformed into a non-fatal chronic disease. Hence, "treatment-free remission (TFR)" has become a possible treatment goal of patients with CML-CP. Currently, four types of TKIs (imatinib, Rokit Pods | Organic Barley 'Coffee' Pods | Decaf Alternative |
With the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) has been transformed into a non-fatal chronic disease. Hence, "treatment-free remission (TFR)" has become a possible treatment goal of patients with CML-CP. Currently, four types of TKIs (imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib) are used as the first-line treatment for newly diagnosed CML-CP. However, the second-generation TKI (2GTKI), the treatment response of which is faster and deeper than that of imatinib, is not always recommended as the first-line treatment for CML-CP. Factors involved in TKI selection in the first-line treatment of CML-CP include not only patients’ medical background, but also patients’ choice regarding the desired treatment goal (survival or TFR?). Therefore, it is important that clinicians select an appropriate TKI to successfully achieve the desired treatment goal for each patient, while minimizing the development of adverse events. This review compares the pros and cons of using imatinib and 2GTKI for TKI selection as the first-line treatment for CML-CP, mainly considering treatment outcomes, medical history (i.e., desire for pregnancy, aging factor, and comorbidity), and cost. The optimal use of 2GTKIs is also discussed. SLIK 08SL006091 Folding Door Gear Track 914mm
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Genetics and Treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia)
Article
Loss of Liquid Lithium Coolant in an Accident in a DONES Test Cell Facility
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6569; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206569 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
A Demo-Oriented early NEutron Source (DONES) facility for material irradiation with nuclear is currently being designed. DONES aims to produce neutrons with fusion-relevant spectrum and fluence by means of D–Li stripping reactions occurring between a deuteron beam impacting a stable liquid lithium flowing ROPER Men's Everett Hiking Shoe
A Demo-Oriented early NEutron Source (DONES) facility for material irradiation with nuclear is currently being designed. DONES aims to produce neutrons with fusion-relevant spectrum and fluence by means of D–Li stripping reactions occurring between a deuteron beam impacting a stable liquid lithium flowing film implementing the target. Given the hazard constituted by the liquid lithium inventory and the potential risk of reactions with water, air, and concrete eventually resulting in fire events, the Target Test Cell (TTC) is filled with helium and the reinforced concrete walls forming the bio-shield are covered with steel liners. A loss of Li in TTC, due to a large break in the Quench Tank, is postulated, and consequences are deterministically studied. With the TTC liner being water-cooled, the impact of the liner temperature rise following a leakage event is evaluated. Two separate MELCOR code models have been defined for the liquid lithium loop and water-cooled loop and are numerically coupled. The amount of leaked inventory dependent on the implemented safety logic and impact on TTC containment is evaluated. The water pressurization pattern within the liner cooling loop is studied to highlight possible risks of lithium–water/concrete reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal-Hydraulics in Nuclear Fusion Technology: R&D and Applications)
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Article
Combinatorial Effect of PLK1 Inhibition with Temozolomide and Radiation in Glioblastoma
Cancers 2021, 13(20), 5114; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13205114 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
New strategies that improve median survivals of only ~15–20 months for glioblastoma (GBM) with the current standard of care (SOC) which is concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation (XRT) treatment are urgently needed. Inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a multifunctional cell cycle regulator, ACJRYO Electric Foot Warmer, Heating Pad Electric USB Heated Foo
New strategies that improve median survivals of only ~15–20 months for glioblastoma (GBM) with the current standard of care (SOC) which is concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation (XRT) treatment are urgently needed. Inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a multifunctional cell cycle regulator, overexpressed in GBM has shown therapeutic promise but has never been tested in the context of SOC. Therefore, we examined the mechanistic and therapeutic impact of PLK1 specific inhibitor (volasertib) alone and in combination with TMZ and/or XRT on GBM cells. We quantified the effects of volasertib alone and in combination with TMZ and/or XRT on GBM cell cytotoxicity/apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MtMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle, stemness, DNA damage, DNA repair genes, cellular signaling and in-vivo tumor growth. Volasertib alone and in combination with TMZ and/or XRT promoted apoptotic cell death, altered MtMP, increased ROS and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Combined volasertib and TMZ treatment reduced side population (SP) indicating activity against GBM stem-like cells. Volasertib combinatorial treatment also significantly increased DNA damage and reduced cell survival by inhibition of DNA repair gene expression and modulation of ERK/MAPK, AMPK and glucocorticoid receptor signaling. Finally, as observed in-vitro, combined volasertib and TMZ treatment resulted in synergistic inhibition of tumor growth in-vivo. Together these results identify new mechanisms of action for volasertib that provide a strong rationale for further investigation of PLK1 inhibition as an adjunct to current GBM SOC therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Therapies for the Treatment of Glioblastoma)
Article
Interpretable Forecasting of Energy Demand in the Residential Sector
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6568; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206568 (registering DOI) - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
Energy demand forecasting is practiced in several time frames; different explanatory variables are used in each case to serve different decision support mandates. For example, in the short, daily, term building level, forecasting may serve as a performance baseline. On the other end, Ottomanson OTH2065-2X7 Ottohome Runner Rug, 1'10" X 7'0", Seafoa
Energy demand forecasting is practiced in several time frames; different explanatory variables are used in each case to serve different decision support mandates. For example, in the short, daily, term building level, forecasting may serve as a performance baseline. On the other end, we have long-term, policy-oriented forecasting exercises. TIMES (an acronym for The Integrated Markal Efom System) allows us to model supply and anticipated technology shifts over a long-term horizon, often extending as far away in time as 2100. Between these two time frames, we also have a mid-term forecasting time frame, that of a few years ahead. Investigations here are aimed at policy support, although in a more mid-term horizon, we address issues such as investment planning and pricing. In this paper, we develop and evaluate statistical and neural network approaches for this mid-term forecasting of final energy and electricity for the residential sector in six EU countries (Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Spain, Portugal and Greece). Various possible approaches to model the explanatory variables used are presented, discussed, and assessed as to their suitability. Our end goal extends beyond model accuracy; we also include interpretability and counterfactual concepts and analysis, aiming at the development of a modelling approach that can provide decision support for strategies aimed at influencing energy demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Making in Energy Systems)

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